Open Access Case Study

Hope for the Hopeless- A Multidisciplinary (Perio-Endo-Prostho) Management of Teeth- A Case Report

Goldar Kabyik, Tandon Snehi, Dutta Subharthi, Agarwal Tanya

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 27-32

Introduction: Preservation of natural dentition is the primary goal of dentistry. Patients, today, not only value their teeth, but also express a desire to save their natural dentition in favour of extraction whenever possible. Hemisection is one of the alternative conservative treatment which aims to preserve the remaining healthy tooth structure and prevent numerous undesirable sequel. Apicoectomy and bone grafting are the stepping stones to achieve that goal.

Aim: To re-create healthy functional periodontium.

Methodology: A 54-year old patient got vertical fracture of tooth #36 involving the half of the mesial root. Simultaneously he had peri-apical lesion in tooth #35 along with Class II gingival recession and Grade III mobility #35, #36.

So it was decided to perform root canal treatment #35, #36 and to resect the fractured mesial root of #36, followed by placement of bone graft in the extraction socket. Apicoectomy was performed in #35. Surgical area was allowed to heal by minimizing the forces on the root for 8 weeks. After healing of the tissues, fixed bridge involving retained distal half of mandibular molar, second and first premolar with pontic is planned.

Results: Uneventful healing was seen in terms of periodontal consideration. Mobility of teeth #35 and distal half of #36 were reduced after 4weeks. 6 months later, crown & bridge was placed.

Conclusion: This case highlights the interdisciplinary approach of molar hemisection, apicoectomy, bone regeneration with prosthetic rehabilitation as an innovative approach providing better results with minimum patient apprehension and long term stability.

Open Access Short Research Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora against Streptococcus Mutans and Candida Albicans: An In vitro Study

P. Sivakami, B. Siva, Madhulika Naidu, M. Anitha, A. Vishalini

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 33-39

AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora against S. mutans and C. albicans.

Settings and Design: The study design involves an in-vitro study.

Subjects and Methods: The microbial strains Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans was inoculated in PDA-Himedia and SDA Media respectively. About 10 g of sample leaves powder was soaked in 99.9% ethyl alcohol and filtered using filter paper and crude extract was obtained. The crude extract was dissolved in ethanol and made into different concentrations of about 12.5 μl, 25 μl, 50 μl, 100 μl and 200 μl. Agar well diffusion method was followed for determination of antimicrobial activity. Agar wells (6mm diameter) were made and different concentrations of plant sample as 12.5 μl, 25 μl, 50 μl, 100 μl, 200 μl and respective standard 30 μl were added using sterilized dropping pipettes into the wells. The bacterial plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and fungal plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h.

Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using IBM software SPSS version 20 at one-way ANOVA.

Conclusion: The Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora leaves extract has an effective antimicrobial efficacy against S. mutans and C. albicans and its antimicrobial efficacy approximates that of standard ampicillin and clotrimazole. Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora leaves extract can be used as an antimicrobial agent in clinical trials.

Open Access Minireview Article

Decision Making for Restoration of Teeth Following Root Canal Treatment: A Narrative Review

Chu Sae Chiau, Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal, Malissa Siao Yun A. S.

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 1-9

Objectives: The decision-making process is extremely important in the field of dentistry, including the field of endodontics, particularly in the selection of materials to be used for restoration. This review paper aims to summarize the factors to be taken into account before choosing a restoration for endodontically treated teeth, to review the different options of restorative materials, as well as to compare the conventional method of crowning endodontically treated teeth with the use of adhesive composite resins on these teeth.

Data: In order to find relevant articles, search terms including composite resin, partial crown, full crown, root canal therapy were used.

Sources: Sources were gathered from bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ResearchGate as well as ScienceDirect.

Study selection: Only articles that are 10 years old or newer were included in the study. In cases where there are insufficient articles that fit this criterion, the length of time was extended to 25 years old.

Articles must be published in the English Language.

Conclusion: The selection of coronal restorations requires the consideration of a multitude of factors. A clinician must always weigh in the benefits and drawbacks of each type of restoration as well as taking into account aesthetics and patient satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Dental Trauma Management among School Teachers

Hui Qing Chong, Shahid Mitha, Ponnuswamy Manikandan, Dawn Lovell

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 19-26

Aims: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge and attitude of schoolteachers in Brunei towards emergency dental trauma management. A secondary objective was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude of schoolteachers towards dental trauma and its management.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study using self-administered, pre-validated questionnaire.

Methodology: The English and Malay language self-administered and pre-validated questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of schoolteachers in five schools. The school principals distributed the questionnaires to schoolteachers that met the inclusion criteria. There were 344 schoolteachers included. The questionnaire has been pretested by 5 schoolteachers before the study was conducted.

Results: Mean knowledge score was found to be ‘poor’ (1.2) and mean attitude score was found to be ‘normal’ (39.9). A majority of the schoolteachers agreed to the need of more information on dental trauma (79.4%). Significant relationships were found between knowledge and the following factors: school (<0.001), gender (<0.001), first aid training (<0.001), dental trauma education (0.02) and prior witnessing of a dental trauma event (<0.001). However, no variables exhibited a statistically significant relationship with attitude. A positive association was found between knowledge and attitude, where a positive attitude would reflect better knowledge (rho=0.23, p <0.001).

Conclusion: The level of knowledge among the schoolteachers was found to be unsatisfactory and the level of attitude as average. There was a weak, positive association observed between schoolteachers’ knowledge and attitude. Therefore, there is a significant need for measures to be taken to raise the knowledge of this subject among these education professionals.

Open Access Review Article

Intermediate Restorative Materials

Kon Jia Yee, Shahid Mitha

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 10-18

Introduction: Intermediate restorative materials are materials that are intended to be used for temporary restoration that usually lasts up to a year. During treatment that requires multiple appointments, intermediate restorative materials can be used to cover the tooth structure to maintain occlusion, protect the pulp, seal the cavity from any external factors such as bacteria and fluid, and maintaining the periodontal relationship temporarily until treatment is finalized. Intermediate restorative materials are classified mainly according to their composition, they are zinc oxide-eugenol based, calcium sulfate-based, glass ionomer cement, and resin composite-based.

Aims: To review the composition, setting reaction, and usage of intermediate restorative materials mentioned above by accessing the Pub Med database.

Methodology: An advanced search was done in the PubMed-Medline resource database. Initially, keywords such as 'intermediate restorative material', 'temporary restorative material', and 'temporary restoration' are input into the search. After the initial search, the articles are reduced as the titles and years of the articles were screened through thoroughly to remove any irrelevant articles. On top of that, the abstract of the articles is read through thoroughly and finally, the articles with the relevant information are read in full texts to collect the articles with significant data for this narrative review. Other than that, articles and textbooks were also extracted from external journals.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that each materials can serve multiple purposes, their usage varies based on their advantages, although some materials may have some drawbacks such as cytotoxicity or weak strength, they could still be applied if their benefit outweighs the risks.