Open Access Data Article

Iraqi Adult Cephalometric Standards: An Analytical Approach

Hayder A. Kadhim, Arkan Muslim Al. Azzawi, Aymen Hameed Uraibi, Hasan Sabah Hasan

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 9-20

Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians counterparts.

Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total of 92 collected studies were met the inclusion criteria. The selected studies have involved the published articles and unpublished master theses, all of them exhibit numerical data for both genders of Iraqi Arab individuals who have class I skeletal pattern with normal occlusion. Selection of 35 parameters took place, included mostly used skeletodental cephalometric measurements to be evaluated and compared. Statistical tests were applied to describe the means and SD, also to find out the statistical ethnic difference between the Iraqis and Caucasians.

Results: The standard norms of many cephalometric parameters exhibited a significant gender difference in Iraqi adults’ individuals, with greater linear hard tissues measurements in males, while non-significant gender differences appeared in facial soft tissue profile. On the other hands, most of the elected cephalometric parameters showed statistically significant differences between the Iraqi Arab and Caucasians compares. Generally, the Iraqis had smaller craniofacial dimensions, maxillary and mandibular skeletal retrusion and more convex profile.

Conclusions:  Apparent sexual dimorphism in addition to significant ethnic difference requires the adoption of gender as well as ethnic specified standard norms during the cephalometric analysis of Iraqi Arab adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, to reach an accurate diagnosis and treatment objectives.

Open Access Minireview Article

Dental Fluorosis: Dilemma of Genetic Susceptibility

Luay Thanoon Younis, Faatin Afeefah Ahmad Naqiyuddin, Afiqah Azhar, Ahmad Izzat Arief Amron, Aida Nur Ashikin Abd Rahman, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 21-26

Excessive exposure to fluoride during formation of teeth may lead to a severe hypomineralization condition, called dental fluorosis. Genes such as Collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2), Estrogen receptor (ESR), Prolactin (PRL), Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and many others have been implicated in the incidence of dental fluorosis. This mini-review is an insight into the fact that fluorosis incidence and intensity are significantly related to individual’s genetic background.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Malocclusion by Children of Different Age Groups and Its Effects on their Oral Health Related Quality of Life as Assessed by Video Recording

B. N. Shruti, S. N. Basavaraj, G. Meher Kiranmayi, Tuga Hamed, Mohanad Hassan

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 1-8

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the perception of malocclusion by various age groups of children and its effect on their Oral Health Related Quality of life.

Study Design:  Randomized controlled hospital based study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry in K.L.E’s Institute of Dental Sciences Bangalore, Karnataka India, between June 2010 and July 2013.

Methodology: 62 children of the age 5-15 years of both gender were selected for the study and categorized into Malocclusion group and Control group. These groups were further divided into age groups of 5-7 years, 8-10 years and 11-14 years. Oral examination of all children was done to include in study groups. Children and parents participating in the study responded to two separate Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQL) questionnaires. The children were asked to watch a funny cartoon show and a video was made. The video was cropped into still images at 25 predetermined points. Width and openness of the children’s mouth and number of teeth shown were measured during the taped sessions to assess the children’s video – based smiling patterns.

Results: There existed a negative correlation between the width of smile and number of teeth shown and the severity of malocclusion as measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index.

Conclusion: Children of the age group 8-10 years and 11-15 years suffering from malocclusion had more effects on the emotions, the self-confidence and social interaction than children of the age group 5-7 years and children belonging to the control group.

Open Access Review Article

An Update on Fluorides and Fluorosis with Reference to Oral Health Status in the Gulf Region: Review

Faiez N. Hattab

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 27-48

Fluoride (F) has exerted the most significant impact on practice of dentistry because of its effectiveness in preventing dental caries. Despite improvements in the oral health of populations, dental caries remains a public health problem worldwide affecting most schoolchildren and present costly burden to health care services. Water fluoridation remains the cornerstone of caries prevention programs. It is the most effective means of reducing caries, cost-effective, convenient, and reliable method of providing the benefits of F to the general population. Without a doubt, the most widely used method of applying F topically is by means of dentifrices. Additional F-modes should be targeting at high-risk populations. The decision to use F in caries prevention requires a balance between benefits and the risk of fluorosis. Fluoride treatment is systemic and local. Modes of systemic fluorides include water fluoridation, dietary F supplements, fluoridated table salt and milk. Topical fluorides are self-applied toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or professionally-applied F solutions, gels, foams, and varnishes. Acidulated F gels (APF, 1.23% F) are the most potential hazardous F products currently used in pediatric dentistry due to the inadvertent ingestion of the gel during treatment. This article reviews F and fluorosis in relation to water, foods, and beverage’s intake, dental products, and industrial emissions. Fluoride metabolism, safety and toxicity is discussing. The therapeutic effects and safety of F treatment can only be answered by understanding the mechanism of F metabolism. The incidence of fluorosis is increasing due to multiple sources of F. The severity of the dental fluorosis depends on the dose, duration, and timing of fluoride intake. Dental health of children in the Arabian Gulf region will be discussed in this review.

Open Access Review Article

Periodontitis: A Hastened and Destructive Inflammatory Induced Senescence

Luay Thanoon Younis, Faisal Ismail Bahnasi, Aida Nur Ashikin Abd Rahman, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan

Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, Page 49-57

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of tooth supporting tissues (periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva). Due to the chronic and intensive inflammation, these tissues undergo accelerated cellular senescence (premature cells cycle arrest). This accelerated cellular senescence ends up with their degeneration and dramatic changes in the normal aesthetic and architecture of the bone and gingiva of the affected individual. This review will provide insights into the detrimental and inevitable effect of inflammatory cellular senescence during periodontal disease progression.