Mandibular Lower Incisors: Alternative Approach for Ligature-Induced Periodontitis Model in Rat, Clinical and Bone Serum Biomarker Assessments

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M. H. Zainal
M. F. H. Hidayat
F. H. Al-Bayaty


Aims: The ligature-induced periodontitis model is one of the standard approaches through ligating the second maxillary molar tooth in rat models, however the procedure is technique sensitive, thus we proposed the technique of ligation of the lower incisor.

Place and Duration of Study: Animal Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Selangor, Malaysia.

Methodology: 16 rats were used in the model to simulate periodontal tissue destruction by a two-week ligature placement around the mandibular incisor. The rats were analyzed for clinical attachment loss and radiographical finding to evaluate presence inflammatory bone loss, as well as changes in bone serum biomarkers.

Results: Two weeks after ligature placement gingival inflammation was significantly induced as well as increase depth of gingival sulcus accompanied by increased plaque level at local site. Mean probing depth increased from 0.41 ± 0.02 mm to 1.35 ± 0.04 mm as well radiographical changes increase from 6.41 ± 0.02 mm to 7.36 ± 0.04 mm after 14 days of ligature which are both statistically significant (P < 0.05). Bone serum biomarker assessment also shows significant difference for of OPG from 574.06 ± 30.76 to 508.70 ± 18.30, DKK1 at T0 was 1163.29 ± 56.87and 1154.86 ± 63.99, SOST from 1598.06 ± 172.77 to 1425.35 ± 225.75 and FGF23 from 590.27 ± 13.87 to 624.00 ± 18.34.

Conclusion: This proposed technique is likely to facilitate the use of the rat ligature-induced periodontitis model and thus add to a better understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms of periodontitis.

Ligature, rat model, oral infection, periodontitis, animal study, methodology, periodontal disease, biomarkers

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How to Cite
Zainal, M. H., Hidayat, M. F. H., & Al-Bayaty, F. H. (2020). Mandibular Lower Incisors: Alternative Approach for Ligature-Induced Periodontitis Model in Rat, Clinical and Bone Serum Biomarker Assessments. Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, 3(4), 33-39. Retrieved from
Short Research Article


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