Symphyseal Injuries as Indices for Condylar Fractures Diagnosis

Main Article Content

Arthur Nwashindi


Aims: The mechanism of condylar fractures and indices for diagnosis are complex hence the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various injuries in the symphyseal region on condylar fracture patterns and correlating it with diagnosis.

Study Design:  Prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Oral and Maxillofacial clinic of University of Uyo Teaching hospital, Uyo Nigeria from February 2014 to January 2020.

Methodology: The study included 111 patients with condylar fractures associated with varying degrees of symphyseal injuries. Data on age, sex, soft tissue injuries, and symphyseal fractures were collated and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Age range 21-30 years had the highest occurrence of condylar fracture with males having more condylar fractures than females. Contusion has more association with condylar fractures followed by hard tissue fracture at the symphysis with a frequency of 38 (34.23%) while abrasion showed the injury with the least impact. Majority of the impact resulted in unilateral condylar fractures with a frequency of 62 (55.86%). Condylar fractures at the level of the condylar neck was more prevalent than at the level of the condylar head with the head showing only a frequency of 40 (36.04%)  as against 71 (69.96%) for condylar neck fractures

Conclusion: The occurrence of mandibular fractures is strongly correlated with age, sex, soft tissue injuries and hard tissue injuries at the symphysis. . Overall, contusion gave more of unilateral fractures while fracture at the symphysis resulted in more of bilateral condylar fractures.

Symphysis, fractures, contusion, condylar, bilateral, unilateral

Article Details

How to Cite
Nwashindi, A. (2020). Symphyseal Injuries as Indices for Condylar Fractures Diagnosis. Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, 3(3), 1-8. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Amin Rahpeyma, Saeedeh Khajehahmadi, Somayeh Abdollahpour. Mandibular symphyseal/ parasymphyseal fracture with incisor tooth loss: Preventing lower Arch constriction craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstruction. 2016;9:15–19.

Zachariades N, Mezitis M, Mourouzis C, Papadakis D, Spanou A. Fractures of the mandibular condyle: A review of 466 cases. Literature review, reflections on treatment and proposals. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2006;34:421-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2006.07.854

Erol B, Tanrikulu R, Görgün B. Maxillofacial fractures. Analysis of demographic distribution and treatment in 2901 patients (25 year experience). J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2004;32:308-313. DOI: 10.1016/j. jcms.2004.04.006.

Zhou H, Lv K, Yang R, Li Z, Li Z, et al. Mechanics in the production of mandibular fractures: A clinical, retrospective case control study. PLoS One 2016;11: e0149553.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149553.

Park KP, Lim SU, Kim JH, Chun WB, Shin DW, Kim JY, et al. Fracture patterns in the maxillofacial region: A four‑year retrospective study. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;41:306-316.
DOI: 10.5125/ jkaoms.2015.41.6.306.

Ellis E 3rd, Moos KF, el-Attar A. Ten years of mandibular fractures: An analysis of 2,137 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;59:120-129.
DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(85)90002-7.

Huelke DF, Harger JH. Maxillofacial injuries: Their nature and mechanisms of production. J Oral Surg 1969;27:451-460.

Antic S, Vukicevic AM, Milasinovic M, Saveljic I, Jovicic G, Filipovic N, et al. Impact of the lower third molar presence and position on the fragility of mandibular angle and condyle: A Three-dimensional finite element study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43:33-40.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2015.03.025

Xin P, Jiang B, Dai J, Hu G, Wang X, Xu B, et al. Finite element analysis of type B condylar head fractures and osteosynthesis using two positional screws. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014;42:482-488.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2013.06.006.

Profit WR, Vig KWL, Turvey TA. Early fracture of mandibular condyles: Frequently an unsuspected cause of growth distur- bances. Am J Orthod 1980;78:1-24

Bradley PF. Condylar injuries. In: Rowe NL, Williams JL, eds. Maxillofacial injuries. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1985.

Mahgoub MA, El-Sabbagh AH, Abd El-Latif EA, Elhadidy MR. Condylar fractures: Review of 40 cases. Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2018;8:19-27.

Ghasemzadeh A, Mundinger GS, Swanson EW, Utria AF, Dorafshar AH. Treatment of pediatric condylar fractures: A 20 year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015; 136:1279-1288

Klatt J, Pohlenz P, Blessmann M, Blake F, Eichhorn W, Schmelzle R, et al. Clinical follow‑up examination of surgically treated fractures of the condylar process using the transparotid approach. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68:611-617.

Hinds EC, Girotti WJ. Vertical subcondylar osteotomy: A reappraisal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1967;24:164-170.

Iida S, Matsuya T. Paediatric maxillofacial fractures: Their aetiological characters and fracture patterns. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2002;30:237-41.

Newman L. A clinical evaluation of the long-term outcome of patients treated for bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyles. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1998; 36:176-9.

Badar MA, Syed SA. Etiology of mandibular condylar fractures; A study from tertiary care hospital of Lahore. PODJ. 2014;34:42-5.

Reddy NV, Reddy PB, Rajan R, Ganti S, Jhawar DK, Potturi A, et al. Analysis of patterns and treatment strategies for mandibular condyle fractures: Review of 175 condyle fractures with review of literature. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2013; 12:315-322

Bradley PF. Condylar injuries. In: Rowe NL, Williams JL, eds. Maxillofacial injuries. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1985.

Myall RWT. Condylar injuries in children: What is different about them? In: Worthington P, Evans JR, eds. Controversies in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994; 191-200.

Gallas Torreira M, Fernandez JR. A three dimensional computer model of the human mandible in two simulated standard trauma situations. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2004; 32:303-307.

Bezerra TP, Silva Junior FI, Scarparo HC, Costa FW, Studart Soares EC. Do erupted third molars weaken the mandibular angle after trauma to the chin region? A 3D finite element study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:474-480.

Kukuła J, Sołkiewicz E, Kowal R, Contemporary methods of treatment of condylar process fractures. Literature review, Pozn. Stomatol. 1997;24:43- 52

Wanyura H, Brudnicki A, Stopa Z, Results of treating fractures of mandibular condylar processes by miniplate osteosynthesis from the retromandibular access, Czas. Stomatol. 2003;56(10):674-682.

Silvennoinen U, Lindqvist C, Oikarinen Dental injury In Association With Mandibular Condyle fractures. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1993;9:254–259.

Zhou, Liu, Cheng, Li ZB. Aetiology, pattern and treatment of mandibular condylar fractures 549 patients: A22-year retrospective study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:34–41.

Huelke DF. Mechanics in the production of mandibular fractures: A study with the stress coat" technique. Symphyseal Impacts. Journal Of Dental Research. 1961;40:1042–1056.

Franklyn M, Field B. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model. World J Orthop. 2013;4:267-78.