Iraqi Adult Cephalometric Standards: An Analytical Approach

Main Article Content

Hayder A. Kadhim
Arkan Muslim Al. Azzawi
Aymen Hameed Uraibi
Hasan Sabah Hasan


Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians counterparts.

Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total of 92 collected studies were met the inclusion criteria. The selected studies have involved the published articles and unpublished master theses, all of them exhibit numerical data for both genders of Iraqi Arab individuals who have class I skeletal pattern with normal occlusion. Selection of 35 parameters took place, included mostly used skeletodental cephalometric measurements to be evaluated and compared. Statistical tests were applied to describe the means and SD, also to find out the statistical ethnic difference between the Iraqis and Caucasians.

Results: The standard norms of many cephalometric parameters exhibited a significant gender difference in Iraqi adults’ individuals, with greater linear hard tissues measurements in males, while non-significant gender differences appeared in facial soft tissue profile. On the other hands, most of the elected cephalometric parameters showed statistically significant differences between the Iraqi Arab and Caucasians compares. Generally, the Iraqis had smaller craniofacial dimensions, maxillary and mandibular skeletal retrusion and more convex profile.

Conclusions:  Apparent sexual dimorphism in addition to significant ethnic difference requires the adoption of gender as well as ethnic specified standard norms during the cephalometric analysis of Iraqi Arab adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, to reach an accurate diagnosis and treatment objectives.

Cephalometric standard norms, Iraqi Arab adults, meta-analysis.

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How to Cite
Kadhim, H. A., Azzawi, A. M. A., Uraibi, A. H., & Hasan, H. S. (2020). Iraqi Adult Cephalometric Standards: An Analytical Approach. Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, 3(1), 9-20. Retrieved from
Data Article


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