Iraqi Adult Cephalometric Standards: An Analytical Approach

Main Article Content

Hayder A. Kadhim
Arkan Muslim Al. Azzawi
Aymen Hameed Uraibi
Hasan Sabah Hasan

Abstract

Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians counterparts.

Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total of 92 collected studies were met the inclusion criteria. The selected studies have involved the published articles and unpublished master theses, all of them exhibit numerical data for both genders of Iraqi Arab individuals who have class I skeletal pattern with normal occlusion. Selection of 35 parameters took place, included mostly used skeletodental cephalometric measurements to be evaluated and compared. Statistical tests were applied to describe the means and SD, also to find out the statistical ethnic difference between the Iraqis and Caucasians.

Results: The standard norms of many cephalometric parameters exhibited a significant gender difference in Iraqi adults’ individuals, with greater linear hard tissues measurements in males, while non-significant gender differences appeared in facial soft tissue profile. On the other hands, most of the elected cephalometric parameters showed statistically significant differences between the Iraqi Arab and Caucasians compares. Generally, the Iraqis had smaller craniofacial dimensions, maxillary and mandibular skeletal retrusion and more convex profile.

Conclusions:  Apparent sexual dimorphism in addition to significant ethnic difference requires the adoption of gender as well as ethnic specified standard norms during the cephalometric analysis of Iraqi Arab adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, to reach an accurate diagnosis and treatment objectives.

Keywords:
Cephalometric standard norms, Iraqi Arab adults, meta-analysis.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kadhim, H. A., Azzawi, A. M. A., Uraibi, A. H., & Hasan, H. S. (2020). Iraqi Adult Cephalometric Standards: An Analytical Approach. Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, 3(1), 9-20. Retrieved from https://journalajds.com/index.php/AJDS/article/view/30105
Section
Data Article

References

Broadbent BH. A new X-ray technique and its application to orthodontia. Angle Orthod. 1931;1:45–66.

Rickettes M. Planning treatment on the basis of the facial pattern and estimate of its growth. Angle Orthod. 1957;27:14-37.

Steiner CC. Cephalometrics for you and me. Am J Orthod. 1953;39:729–755.

Downs WB. Variation in facial relationships: Their significance, treatment and prognosis. Am J Orthod. 1948;34: 812–840.

Tweed CH. Evolutionary trends in orthodontics, past, present, and future. Am J Orthod. 1953;39:81–108.

Legan HL, Burstone CJ. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthognathic surgery. J Oral Surg. 1980;38:744– 751.

Holdaway RA. A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part I. Am J Orthod. 1983;84:1–28.

Scheideman GB, Bell WH, Legan HL, Finn RA, Reisch JS. Cephalometric analysis of dentofacial normals. Am J Orthod. 1980; 78(4):404-20.

Burstone CJ, James RB, Legan H, Murphy GA, Norton LA. Cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery. J Oral Surg. 1978; 36(4):269-77.

Bell WH, Proffit WR, White RP. Surgical correction of dentofacial deformities, volume I. WB Saunders: Philadelphia. 1980;137-50.

Oi H, Nakata S, Nakasima A, Counts AL. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29(5): 493-9.

Gu Y, McNamara JA Jr, Sigler LM, Baccetti T. Comparison of craniofacial characteristics of typical Chinese and Caucasian young adults. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33(2):205-211.

Gonzalez MB, Caruso JM, Sugiyama RM, Schlenker. Establishing cephalometric norms for a Mexican population using Ricketts, Steiner, Tweed and Arnett analyses. APOS Trends in Orthodontics. 2013;3(6):171-177.

Wu J, Hägg U, Rabie AB. Chinese norms of McNamara’s cephalometric analysis. Angle Orthod. 2007;77(1):12-20.

Hamdan AM, Rock WP. Cephalometric norms in an Arabic population. J Orthod. 2001;28(4):297-300.

Alshammery DA, Almubarak S, Hezaim AB, Alkhunein R, Pani SC, Mossadomi H. Cephalometric norms of skeletal relationship among populations in selected Arab countries: A systematic review and meta analysis. S J Oral Sci. 2016;3(2): 69-74.

Nahidh M. Iraqi cephalometric norms using McNamara’s analysis. J Bagh College Dentistry. 2010;22(3):123-127.

Al-Khawaja NFK, Kadhom ZM, Al-Tuma RR. Soft tissue cephalometric norms for a sample of Iraqi population group using legan and burstone analysis. Karbala J Med. 2015;8(2):2222-2228.

Al-Ta’ani MMA. Soft tissue facial profile analysis: A cephalometric study of some Iraqi adults with normal occlusion. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 1996.

Yousef MAS. Soft tissue facial profile analysis: A comparative study of the dental and skeletal class I and class II for Iraqi adult sample (A lateral cephalometric study). A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2001.

Al-Joubori SK. The relation between mandibular morphology and lower arch crowding in skeletal class I Iraqi adults sample. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2002.

Al-Aanbaky EF. Relationship of profile facial types and mandibular growth rotation (Cross-sectional lateral cephalometric study). A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2004.

Najimaldean JM. Skeletodental patterns of Iraqi Kurd and Arab patients with class I skeletal relationship sample aged 18-25 years. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2005.

Al-Labban YR. Maxillary sinus dimensions and its relation with craniofacial measurements in mouth breathing individuals compared with skeletal class I nasal breathers. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2006.

Al-Attar AM. The relationship between mandibular antegonial notch depth and craniofacial morphology in Iraqi sample aged 18–25 years. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2006.

Tarik HK. The relationship of overbite, cant of occlusal plane and incisor inclination in normal & deep bite malocclusion: A cephalometric study. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2007.

Mossa AA. Orientation of the cranial base on facial skeleton in different skeletal classes of Iraqi adults. A master thesis, College of Dentistry-Department of orthodontics, University of Baghdad; 2007.

Yassir AY. Al-Mulla AA. Mandibular antegonial notch depth distribution and its relationship with craniofacial morphology in different skeletal patterns. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2009;21(1):107-111.

Al-Zubaidi SH. The skeletal and soft tissue facial profile in adolescent and adult. Al – Rafidain Dent J 2009;9(1):149-155.

Mohammed SA. A comparative lateral cephalometric study between class III malocclusion and class I normal occlusion. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2009;21(4):97-103.

Al-Joubori SK, Yassir YA, Al-Bustani AI, The relation between ramus notch depth and some of the craniofacial measurements in different skeletal patterns. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2009;21 (4):104-108.

Kadhom ZM, Al-Janabi MF. Soft-tissue cephalometric norms for a sample of Iraqi adults with class I normal occlusion in natural head position. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2011;23(3):160-166.

Yassir AY, Kadhum AS, Al-Ajwadi ShA. Soft tissue measurements of Iraqi individuals with Cl I and Cl III skeletal pattern: A comparative cephalometric study. Mustansiria Dent J. 2011;8(2):164-170.

Agha NF, Ahmad ZM, Al-Dewachi ZB. Correlation of incisors inclination and position with facial profile. Al–Rafidain Dent J. 2011;11(1):154-160.

Al-Mashhadany SM, Al- Mothaffar NMJ. The characteristics of profile facial types and its relation with mandibular rotation in a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal relations. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2012;24(1):135-139.

Yassir AY, Nahidh M, Yousif HAA. Assessment of sagittal lip position and some affecting factors in a sample of Iraqi adults. Mustansiria Dent J. 2012;9(2): 172-183.

Abd BI, Ali FA. Cranial base morphology in different skeletal classes (A cross- sectional lateral cephalometric study). J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2013;25(1): 108-113.

Mohammed SA, Nissan LMK, Taha SSh. Soft tissue facial profile analysis of adult Iraqis with different classes of malocclusion. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2013; 25(4):151-159.

Nahidh M, Al-Mashhadany SMJ. Beta angle in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I skeletal and dental relations and its correlation with other craniofacial measurements. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2013; 25(4):145-150.

Yassir YA. Ramus height and its relationship with skeletal and dental measurements. J Oral Dent Research. 2013;1:4-8.

Ali AI. McNamara’s cephalometric analysis for Iraqi population in Mosul City. Inter J Enh Rese Sc Tech & Eng. 2014;3(4): 287-299.

Fadel AA, Ali FA. Nasopharyngeal dimensions in relation to some dento-cranial variables in Class I and II skeletal patterns (A Comparative Cephalometric Study). J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2015;27(4): 150-154.

Berum HER, Fatah AA. Cephalometric study of Iraqi adult subjects with Cl I and Cl III skeletal relationships and their effects on masseter muscle thickness by using ultrasonography. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2016;28(1):84-91.

McNamara JA Jr, Ellis E 3rd. Cephalometric analysis of untreated adults with ideal facial and occlusal relationships. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1988;3(4):221-31.

Bishara SE, Hession TJ, Peterson LC. Longitudinal soft-tissue profile changes: A study of three analyses. Am J Orthod. 1985;88(3):209-23.

Arnett GW, Jelic JS, Kim J, Cummings DR, Beress A, Worley CM Jr, Chung B, Bergman R. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis: Diagnosis and treatment planning of dentofacial deformity. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999;116 (3):239-53.

McNamara JA Jr. A method of cephalometric evaluation. Am J Orthod. 1984;86(6):449-69.

Aurizanti D, Suryonegoro H, Priaminiarti M. Comparison of craniofacial linear measurements of 20-40 year-old males and females using digital lateral cephalometric radiography in Indonesia. J Physics: Conf. Series. 2017;884(2): 012046.

William R Proffit, Henry W Fields, David M Sarver. Contemporary orthodontics. 5th Edition Elsevier/Mosby. 2013;94.

Yassir A Yassir. Saddle angle and its relationship with maxillary and mandibular lengths. Iraqi Orthod J. 2009;5(1): 14-16.

Järvinen S. Relation of the SNA angle to the NSAr angle in excellent occlusion and in malocclusion. Am J Orthod. 1982;81(3): 245-8.

Hashim HA, Al Barakati SF. Cephalometric soft tissue profile analysis between two different ethnic groups: A comparative study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003;4(2): 60-73.

Miyajima K1, Mc Namara JA Jr, Kimura T, Murata S, Iizuka T. Craniofacial structure of Japanese and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1996;110(4):431-8.

Nanda R, Nanda RS. Cephalometric study of the dentofacial complex of North Indians. Angle Orthod. 1969;39(1):22-8.

Al-Jasser NM. Cephalometric evaluation of craniofacial variation in normal Saudi population according to Steiner analysis. Saudi Med J. 2000;21(8):746-50.

Hajighadimi M, Dougherty HL, Garakani F. Cephalometric evaluation of Iranian children and its comparison with Tweed's and Steiner's standards. Am J Orthod. 1981;79(2):192-7.

Aldrees AM. Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis. Saudi Dent J. 2011;23(1):3-7.

Muslim A, Kadhim HA. The soft tissue changes following orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion (A clinical and photographical study). J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2016;28(1):133-137.

Al-Gunaid T, Yamada K, Yamaki M, Saito I. Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in Yemeni men. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;132(5):576.e7-14.

AlBarakati SF. Soft tissue facial profile of adult Saudis. Lateral cephalometric analysis. Saudi Med J. 2011;32(8):836-42.

Merrifield LL. The profile line as an aid in critically evaluating facial esthetics. Am J Orthod. 1966;52(11):804-22.