Awareness of Smokers about the Effects of Smoking on Periodontal and Oral Health in the Military Dental Hospital in Omdurman (Sudan) in 2018

Dalia Ahmed Gasm El Seed *

Periodontics Department, Napata College, Program of Dentistry, Sudan.

Malaz Yahya Abd Al-Kreem

Faculty of Dentistry, Karary University, Omdurma, Sudan.

Abeer Hussein Al-Bushra

Faculty of Dentistry, Karary University, Omdurma, Sudan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Smoking is considered as a risk factor for the initiation and progression of oral and periodontal diseases.

The Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of smokers about the effects of smoking on periodontal and oral health.

Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, data was collected using designing questionnaire. Demographic data such as age, occupation and educational level were taken, then factors associated with smoking awareness, the effect of the number of cigarettes and the duration of smoking on oral periodontal health and the oral symptoms (complaints) associated with smoking. We followed a simple random method to select study participants at the Military Dental Hospital in Omdurman, Sudan. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23 and the results were presented as frequencies and proportions in table and figures.

Results: A total number of 385 smoking males, with mean age of 27.8 were selected to participate in this study. The mean of cigarettes smoked per day was10 cigarettes and the mean of the duration since starting smoking was 8 years. The majority of smokers (85.5%) were not aware of the effect of the number of cigarettes on periodontal and oral health. Also, 93 % of them were not aware of the effects of the duration of smoking on oral and periodontal health. 63% of smokers complained of color change of oral mucosa, 35%  about staining of the teeth, 19.2%  of bad breath and 17% delay in wound healing.( with statistically significant difference) More than half (58.20%) of smokers were aware that smoking can cause oral cancer and 76.10% indicated that smoking was cool. Most of the study participants (89.10 %) didn’t receive adequate information about the risk of smoking on their health from their dentists and 88.60% of them didn’t hear about Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRTs).

Conclusion: the present study demonstrates that a high percentage of smokers were not aware of the harmful effects of smoking on oral and periodontal health.

Keywords: Awareness, smoking, periodontal, oral health

How to Cite

Seed , D. A. G. E., Al-Kreem , M. Y. A., & Al-Bushra , A. H. (2023). Awareness of Smokers about the Effects of Smoking on Periodontal and Oral Health in the Military Dental Hospital in Omdurman (Sudan) in 2018. Asian Journal of Dental Sciences, 6(1), 179–187. Retrieved from


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